Secretary Ray Mabus Sept. 16, 2015, Testimony To House Armed Services Committee On FY2016 Nat’l Defense Budget Request

2012) Ships and submarines participating in the Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) 2012 exercise are underway in close formation during the Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) 2012 exercise. Twenty-two nations, more than 40 ships and submarines, more than 200 aircraft and 25,000 personnel are participating in the biennial RIMPAC exercise from June 29 to Aug. 3, in and around the Hawaiian Islands.

Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) 2012 exercise  US Navy Photo

Size and capability equal global presence, and our multi-billion dollar contracts are actually saving taxpayer dollars.

What should Americans conclude when they hear conflicting claims about the U.S. Navy being too large or shrinking too much? History and the facts prove those claims wrong. Indeed, this administration is aggressively rebuilding our fleet to surpass 300 ships before 2020, and that effort is critical to our security and our economy.

The size of our fleet matters because we live in a maritime-centric world. About 70% of our planet is covered by water; 80% of the earth’s population lives within an hour’s drive to the sea; 90% of global trade is seaborne; and 95% of voice and data are carried via undersea cables.

Since the end of World War II, the U.S. Navy has kept international sea lanes open around the world. We’ve protected trade and commerce not just for ourselves and our allies, but for everyone. Today, $9 trillion in goods are traded globally by sea, supporting about 40 million jobs in the U.S. alone and benefiting nearly every consumer on earth. With numbers like that, the health of the world’s economy depends in large part on the United States Navy and Marine Corps.

There is an inarguable link between rising prosperity and civil stability, but that’s just one of the direct benefits Americans enjoy because the U.S. Navy, America’s Away Team, is doing its job across the globe. That presence—on, above and beneath the seas—reassures our allies and deters our adversaries. And, if conflict comes, we will fight and win.

We are also ready to respond to humanitarian crises, as we do repeatedly around the world, most recently in Nepal, the Philippines, Japan and Haiti. Closer to home the Navy and Marine Corps responded after Hurricanes Sandy and Katrina. It is what Americans do, what we have always done.

In every case, from high-end combat to irregular warfare to disaster relief, our naval assets get there faster, stay longer, we bring whatever we need with us and we act without having to ask anyone’s permission because our ships are sovereign U.S. territory. The Navy demonstrated the significance of this capability when the only strikes for the first 54 days of the air campaign against Islamic State militants in Iraq and Syria came from Navy F/A-18 Hornets off the USS George H.W. Bush in the Arabian Gulf. Land-based fighters could not participate until host nations approved.

That is presence—the unrivaled advantage that the Navy and Marine Corps team uniquely provide our nation. People and platforms can be surged, but you cannot surge trust and there is no “next best thing” for building trust other than being there. Maintaining that presence requires gray hulls on the horizon.

On Sept. 11, 2001, our fleet stood at 316 ships. Fewer than eight years later, despite one of the great military build-ups in American history, the fleet had declined to 278 ships. It’s true our focus in those years was on two ground wars, but our shipbuilding program had been neglected. In the five years before 2009, the Navy put just 27 ships under contract, not nearly enough to keep our fleet from shrinking, and not enough to keep our shipyards going. In the next five years, we put 70 ships under contract.

While challenged by constrained budgets and continuing fiscal uncertainty, we’ve done this with business fundamentals: increasing reliance on fixed-price contracts, block buys and multi-year procurements; having stable designs and mature technologies; and hard, but fair, bargaining.

In April 2014, the Navy awarded its largest ever contract by dollar value, an $18 billion, multi-year contract for 10 Virginia-class submarines. The savings we realized with this contract were more than $2 billion, effectively giving the Navy 10 subs for the price of nine.

With two shipyards building our DDG-51 destroyers, in 2013, instead of bidding out two ships, we bid three. Each shipyard received one ship and the low bidder the third ship. The difference between the low and high bids also was taken out of the high bid’s profit. We’re saving $300 million per ship by doing so. This formula was repeated in 2014 when we bid out nine ships under the same rules with comparable savings. Interestingly, one shipyard won the first time, the other the second, showing the great benefits to competition.

Our newest type of ship, the Littoral Combat Ship, a large, fast, shallow draft, modular ship, has two variants built by different yards. The first four, LCS 1-4, were contracted before 2009, at an average ship construction cost of $548 million. We now have 19 ships authorized and appropriated under the FY10-15 block buy contract at an average ship construction cost of $337 million, thanks to competition and facility improvements at both shipyards.

These business practices are helping build our fleet, while saving taxpayer dollars. And the work is increasing and stabilizing America’s shipbuilding and ship repair industry, which provides more than 400,000 direct and indirect jobs and contributes more than $36 billion to America’s gross domestic product. Shipbuilding enhances and strengthens economic security and national security.

Beyond the platforms themselves, we must also maintain our technological superiority with the systems and weapons we put on those platforms. The Department of the Navy has, throughout history, always paved the way for innovation, driving new technologies such as the switch from sail to coal, coal to oil, and using nuclear power as propulsion. We pioneered the use of computers, carrier aviation and precision-guided munitions.

We continue to innovate from within and to seek out new technologies from industry. 3-D printing, directed energy and unmanned systems are among many and varied capabilities we are exploring and moving from the lab to the warfighter, to ensure we hold that technological advantage.

And today we’re getting more out of our ships. All of our ships are multi-mission platforms, ready to meet anything that comes over the horizon. On any given day, we have about 100 ships forward deployed, meaning they are far from America’s shores in places like the western Pacific and the Arabian Gulf. This is the same number we had forward deployed 20 years ago when the fleet had 400 ships instead of the approximately 300 we have currently. Regardless, today we have more firepower, more capability, and more capacity to do whatever is necessary on the world’s oceans than we did 20 or 40 or 100 years ago, and we are increasing this power dramatically because of the new ships coming into the fleet.

Certain things are beyond debate. First, we are the only nation willing and able to ensure freedom of the seas; the U.S. economy – and the world’s – depends on our doing just that. Secondly, in order to protect sea-lanes, reassure allies and deter potential foes, we must have a fleet that is big enough and capable enough to do so, and that fleet must be forward deployed constantly. Third, after years of decline, our fleet is growing and will reach the required size in less than five years. Fourth, ships take a long time to build and are on the seas for decades; the fleet size we are living with today is the result of decisions made ten years ago or longer, and by building our fleet, we are making better decisions for those who follow us. Lastly, shipbuilding is a unique skill that is hard to acquire, and that, once lost, is very hard to recover.

Some like to say that our fleet is declining in size or compare the size of the today’s fleet to what it was at some point in history. These assertions discount the fact that ships today can do far more than those of any other age. And while such statements may advance political or personal agendas and grab headlines, they demonstrate a fundamental misconception, whether willful or innocent, that we cannot afford, and do a disservice to our Sailors, Marines, shipbuilders, industry and, most importantly, to America.

Statements like these embolden our potential adversaries, undermine the confidence of our allies, and are completely wrong. The U.S. Navy and Marines are the most formidable expeditionary fighting force the world has ever known, providing our nation with invaluable presence around the world. By continuing to increase both the size and capability of our fleet, we will ensure that it remains so.

Posted by: arbeam | September 6, 2015

18 Sept: USS Turner Joy POW/MIA Recognition

Turner Joy 052515

USS Turner Joy Vietnam POW Memorial, mess decks POW/MIA Missing Man table display, Guest presenter will be ex- POW William Metzger (CAPT, USN, Ret.).10:00-5:00 PM

Posted by: arbeam | September 5, 2015

USS Washington History: BB-56

USS Washington BB-56 at Puget Sound Navy Yard April 1944

USS Washington BB-56 at Puget Sound Navy Yard                                  April 1944

USS Washington (BB-56) was laid down on 14 June 1938 at the Philadelphia Navy Yard; launched on 1 June 1940; sponsored by Miss Virginia Marshall, of Spokane, Wash., a direct descendant of former Chief Justice Marshall; and commissioned at the Philadelphia Navy Yard on 15 May 1941, Capt. Howard H. J. Benson in command.

Characteristics: Displacement 36,000; length 729’; beam 108’; draft 38′; speed 28 knots; complement 108 officers, 1,772 men; armament 9-16 inch, 20-5 inch, 16 1.1 inch guns, 2 aircraft Catapults; class Carolina

USS Washington BB-56 1Washington was assigned operations in the Atlantic fleet with the Home Fleet, patrolling part of the Allied shipping lanes leading to Russian ports. Washington sailed for the Pacific on 23 August 1942, with Rear Admiral Willis A. “Ching” Lee, Jr., embarked as Commander, Battleship Division (BatDiv) 6, and Commander, Task Group 12.2.

Washington was one of the first to be equipped with fully operational radar. She has the distinction of being the only American battleship to sink an enemy battleship during World War II in a “one on one” surface engagement.

On 15 November 1942 Washington engaged the Japanese Battleship Kirishima, in the first head-to-head confrontation of battleships in the Pacific war. USS Washington and USS South Dakota as part of Task Force 64 was defending the invasion of Guadalcanal in what became the Battle of Savo Island. In seven minutes, tracking by radar, Washington sent 75 rounds of 16-inch and 107 rounds of 5-inch at ranges from 8,400 to 12,650 yards, scoring at least nine hits with her main battery and about 40 with her 5-inchers, silencing the enemy battleship in short order. The Japanese had lost the battleship Kirishima. Left burning and exploding, she later had to be abandoned and scuttled.

USS Washington went on to fight in the Battle of the Phillipine Sea, then Washington’s heavy guns supported the taking of Peleliu and Angaur in the Palaus. Washington, as a vital unit of the fast carrier striking forces, supported raids on Okinawa, in the Ryukyus; Formosa; Luzon; Camranh Bay, French Indochina; Saigon, French Indochina; Hong Kong; Canton; Hainan Island; Nansei Shoto. Washington’s heavy rifles hurled 16-inch shells shoreward in support of the landings on Iwo Jima. Washington lent her support to the shellings of Japanese positions on the island of Okinawa.


On 1 February 1944, Washington rammed the battleship Indiana when the latter was maneuvering across the formation to refuel destroyers. With around 60 feet (18 m) of her bow heavily damaged, a full restoration was conducted at Puget Sound Navy Yard.

Washington suffered no losses to hostile action during the entire course of the war. Washington (BB-56) earned 13 battle stars during World War II in operations that had carried her from the Arctic to the western Pacific.

Washington (BB-56) earned 13 battle stars during World War II in operations that had carried her from the Arctic to the western Pacific.

After a brief stint as a transport, Washington was placed out of commission, in reserve, on 27 June 1947. Assigned to the New York group of the Atlantic Reserve Fleet, Washington remained inactive through the late 1950’s, ultimately being struck from the Navy list on 1 June I960. The old warrior was sold on 24 May 1961 to the Lipsett Division, Luria Bros., of New York City, and was scrapped soon thereafter.

Posted by: arbeam | September 5, 2015

USS Washington History: BB-47

BB47 Hull

USS Washington (BB-47), a Colorado-class battleship, was the second ship of the United States Navy named in honor of the 42nd state. Her keel was laid down on 30 June 1919 at Camden, New Jersey, by the New York Shipbuilding Corporation. She was launched on 1 September 1921, sponsored by Miss Jean Summers, the daughter of Congressman John W. Summers of Washington State.


On 8 February 1922, two days after the signing of the Washington Naval Treaty for the Limitation of Naval Armaments, all construction work ceased on the 75.9% completed super-dreadnought. Ultimately, her incomplete hulk was towed out to sea, where she was sunk as a gunnery target on 26 November 1924 by the battleships New York and Texas.

Posted by: arbeam | September 5, 2015

USS Washington History: ACR-11

The first six Washingtons were named for George Washington; the seventh and eighth, for Washington state. This history will concentrate on the ships named for the State of Washington

The first Washington named for the State ACR-11 (Armored Cruiser No. 11) was laid down on 23 September 1903 at Camden, N.J., by the New York Shipbuilding Co.; launched on 18 March 1905; sponsored by Miss Helen Stewart Wilson, daughter of United States Senator John L. Wilson of Washington state; and commissioned at the Philadelphia Navy Yard on 7 August 1906, Capt. James D. Adams in command.

Characteristics (Armored Cruiser No. 11: displacement 15,712; length 504’5″; beam 72’10”; draft 25′; speed 22 knots; complement 887; armament 4 10-inch, 16 6-inch, 22 3-inch, 4 18-inch torpedo tubes; class Tennessee), Coal Powered.

Her Main armament of four 10-inch (254 mm) guns in twin turrets was the heaviest carried by any American armored cruiser. Their armor was thinner than earlier cruisers due to newly imposed congressional restraints on tonnage for armored cruisers and the need for them to be able to steam at 22 knots.

Washington first visited Bremerton in the Summer 1908, operated off the west coast into 1909 including a deployment to the Philippines, China and Japan. Following deployment Washington entered Navy Yard Puget Sound for repairs Mar 21 1909.

Washington returned to the Atlantic via South America Fall of 1910 and served as flagship for the Commander in Chief, Atlantic Fleet, in 1912

Washington (Armored Cruiser No. 11) at Seattle in 1908, with the Olympic Mountains in the background. Her four tall stacks underscore the emphasis on speed in the design of the armored cruiser, predecessor of the battle cruiser of World War I. (NH 63652)

Washington (Armored Cruiser No. 11) at Seattle in 1908, with the Olympic Mountains in the background. Her four tall stacks underscore the emphasis on speed in the design of the armored cruiser, predecessor of the battle cruiser of World War I. (NH 63652)

On 9 November 1916, Washington was renamed Seattle (retaining her classification as Armored Cruiser No. 11). She was simultaneously taken out of reserve and recommissioned for duty as flagship of the Destroyer Force.

She sailed on 14 June 1917 as an escort for the first American convoy to European waters and as flagship for Rear Admiral Albert Cleaves.

Seattle operated on escort duties for the remainder of World War I, completing her ninth round-trip voyage at New York on 27 October 1918. After the armistice, Seattle she brought back doughboys from France until 5 July 1919. Seattle sailed for the west coast to join the Pacific Fleet.

On 1 March 1923, Seattle became the flagship for the Commander in Chief, United States Fleet, they operated from Seattle to Hawaii and from Panama to Australia.







On 1 July 1931, the ship’s designation was changed to “unclassified.” As receiving ship, Seattle served as a floating barracks-a “clearance house for personnel”-at New York into the 1940’s. She was ultimately placed out of commission and was struck from the Navy list on 19 July of the same year. Sold on 3 December 1946 to Hugo Neu, of New York City, the former flagship of the United States Fleet and receiving ship at New York was subsequently scrapped.

Posted by: arbeam | September 4, 2015

USS Washington (SSN 787) Crest


USS Washington Crest

Navy tradition requires that each ship of the United States Navy have its own distinct coat of arms, which reflects both the heritage embodied in the ship’s namesake and its future mission objectives. Unique in design for each ship, the crest will represent the ship’s identity throughout its service life, and help foster unity and esprit de corps for the crew.

USS Washington’s crest blend Washington State icons Mount Rainier, the Seattle skyline, evergreen trees; and silhouettes of the previous two WASHINGTONs. The central image is the submarine, surging forth from the waters of the Puget Sound, emblazoned with a paint scheme reminiscent of Native American art depictions of an orca whale, the state’s official marine mammal.

Along the top of the state border, 6 hollow stars represent previous naval vessels named for George Washington and 2 solid gold stars representing the ships named for the state. At the bottom, submarine dolphins, one silver and one gold to represent the enlisted and officer warfare insignia. They sit atop a block of battleship armor plating on which is printed the ship’s name and motto, “Preserving Peace, Prepared for War.” The motto is derived from a quote from the state’s namesake, George Washington, “To be prepared for war is one of the most effective means of preserving peace.”

Set behind the state is a ring adorned with the official state tartan, as adopted in 1991 for the state’s centennial. The color scheme of the tartan is a green background for the rich forests of “The Evergreen State,” with perpendicular bands of contrasting colors symbolic of the features of the state: blue (for the lakes, rivers and ocean), white (for the snow-capped mountains), red (for the apple and cherry crops), yellow (for the wheat and grain crops), and black (for the eruption of Mount St. Helens). At the top center of the tartan ring is the ship’s hull number, “SSN 787,” split by the silhouette of George Washington.

Posted by: arbeam | September 3, 2015

USS Washington SSN-787 Commissioning

VCS Washington SSN787 edited

The USS Washington (SSN 787) is the first ship since World War II and the only submarine to be named after the State of Washington.

Although it is expected the USS Washington will be commissioned in Virginia and homeported in Hawaii, the ship represents the State of Washington. As Secretary of the Navy, the Honorable Ray Mabus, said during the USS Washington Naming Ceremony on 7 February 2013: “The men and women who serve on board this submarine represent your state and will be in parts of the world where they will be the only Americans many people will ever see. Your namesake will ply the waters of the globe, giving others the chance to see what the Navy can do and what Washington means to the Navy and the country.”

The commissioning ceremony is one of the most important traditional ceremonial milestones in the life of the ship, for it represents the acceptance of the ship by the United States Navy and her entry into the active fleet. Citizens of the State of Washington and other Americans will have the opportunity to join in the celebration of the WASHINGTON, a national security investment and to support and gain understanding of the United States Navy by attending events and the ceremony itself.

Other milestone ceremonies are the Naming, Keel Laying, Christening and Decommissioning. USS Washington was named in the Naming Ceremony on 7 February 2013 where the Governor of Washington proclaimed: “This is a Navy state, a Navy state by tradition. I want to thank the U.S. Navy and its leadership for being great partners with Washington State.” The Keel Laying occurred 22 November 2014. Her Christening is anticipated in January 2016 and the commissioning will take place sometime in the fall of 2016.

Washington is one of fourteen next-generation attack submarine, the Virginia Class Submarine. It will provide the Navy with the capabilities required to maintain the nation’s undersea supremacy well into the 21st century. Their inherent stealth, endurance, firepower, and sensor suite directly enable them to support five of the six maritime strategy core capabilities – sea control, power projection, forward presence, maritime security, and deterrence. SSN 787 will be 7,800-tons and 377 feet in length with a beam of 34 feet. It can operate at more than 25 knots submerged. Her 134-member crew can launch up to 12 Tomahawk land-attack missiles and Mark 48 advanced capability torpedoes.

The USS Washington Commissioning Committee is an all-volunteer committee across the State of Washington and led by the Navy League of the United States, Bremerton-Olympic Council. The committee is comprised of former Navy and Coast Guard personnel, civic leaders and civilians who recognize the value and the need of the sea services. It will help honor Washington’s newest namesake ship.

A commissioning is a ceremony placing a ship into active service and is celebrated to honor ship, and the men and women onboard as it begins its history. The ceremony and events that surround it are rooted in centuries old naval tradition.

The USS Washington Commissioning Committee Objectives:

  • Provide a memorable Commissioning Ceremony for the USS WASHINGTON
  • Raise awareness within the State about the construction of SSN 787 and her commissioning.
  • Promote lasting relationships between the State of Washington and the crew of USS WASHINGTON.
  • Finance appropriate events and activities associated with these objectives by supplementing the limited funds provided by the Navy for customary and expected social activities.

USS Washington Commissioning Committee
P.O. Box 5598
Bremerton Washington 98312-5598


Facebook: USS Washington Commissioning Committee

Posted by: arbeam | September 3, 2015

Virginia Class Submarine Construction

USS Washington SSN-787 is the fourteenth submarine in the Virginia Class. It is currently under construction at Newport News Shipbuilding in Norfolk VA.

One of the key design considerations in the Virginia Class Submarine construction program is  to minimize construction costs by design innovation and continuous process improvement.

Newport News Shipbuilding (NNS) is teamed with General Dynamics Electric Boat (GC/EB) to build Virginia-class submarines. The joint production arrangement is a departure from prior U.S. submarine construction practices, under which complete submarines were built in individual yards. The goal of the arrangement is to keep both GD/EB and NNS involved in building nuclear-powered submarines, and thereby maintain two U.S. shipyards capable of building nuclear-powered submarines, while minimizing the cost penalties of using two yards rather than one to build a submarine design that is being procured at a relatively low annual rate.

NNS Green Modules, EB Gray Modules, Reactor compartment Both

NNS Green Modules, EB Gray Modules, Reactor compartment Both

A major improvement in the construction process was the development of modular construction techniques. Newport News Shipbuilding builds the stern, habitability and machinery spaces, torpedo room sail and Bow. Electric Boat builds the pressure hull, engine room and control room. Newport News Shipbuilding each build the reactor plant as well alternate on the final assembly and test.

Initial Module Construction

Initial Module Construction

Equipment Raft Load

Equipment Raft Load

The modules are built vertically then turned on their side to load the equipment. The completed modules are then shipped by barge to the assembly yard.



April 25, 2014 - A Washington (SSN 787) module is moved on a crawler transporter

USS New Hampshire bow






By increasing the size of the modules that form each submarine, so that each submarine can be built out of a smaller number of modules, the shipyards have reduced shipyard construction time to 60 months, which allows 2 submarines to be produced each year. Newport News commissioning odd number hulls in the spring and Electric Boat even numbered hulls in the fall.

Posted by: arbeam | September 3, 2015

Aug 20: Naval Magazine Indian Island Tour

NAVMAG Indian Island

Indian Island LogoA group of Bremerton-Olympic council Navy Leaguers and guests visited Naval Magazine Indian Island for a tour on August 20, 2015. Although the commanding officer of the base was in the “other Washington” for necessary business we were warmly welcomed aboard as in the past by Bill Kalina, PAO.

Bill started us off by giving an overview of the history of Indian Island, including that George Vancouver “discovered” the island and because of two poles with indian head on them as no trespassing signs named it Indian Island. The island, originally purchased from the Native Americans living there was again purchased in 1939 from the then 64 separate landowners who farmed, worked orchards and raised cattle for the purpose of establishing an ordnance and weapons handling facility. The base was commissioned in 1941 and work done there during WW II also included assembly of mines and submarine nets.

Indian Island is culturally significant in that it contains a number of historic Native American sites and significant pioneer homestead sites. There are also still a number of WW II era buildings which are still in use, although old military housing was removed years ago and no one presently lives on Indian Island.

There is much wildlife there and we got a close look at a huge eagle’s nest, one of several, which is near the fire house. There are many deer and a couple of coyote too.

USNS Wally Schirra (L), USNS Carl Brashear (R) loading at NavMag Indian Island

USNS Wally Schirra (L), USNS Carl Brashear (R) loading at NavMag Indian Island

During our travels around the base we drove out on the munitions handling pier which was built in 1977, is the largest ammunition wharf on the West coast, is the only such deep water facility and contains the Navy’s largest crane. Ships from submarines to aircraft carriers can be accommodated at the 650′ long pier. Munitions arrive on Indian Island by truck and are offloaded at one of 8 staging areas. Although many of the magazines (a/k/a bunkers in the Army) are of WW II vintage more recently larger buildings have been constructed to Tomahawk missile storage. Only conventional ordnance is handled and stored at Indian Island and none is armed. There are no nuclear weapons. Conventional ordnance requirements of all US and Allied military forces requirements are met here and there is a close working relationship with Canada.

Indian Island is well known for the successful remediation of significant landfill pollution that was once one of 19 Superfund Sites.

NL Tour 2015

We concluded the tour with a peaceful visit to the serene and beautiful site of the Anderson homestead where there are still remnants of their apple orchard. Some notable glacial erratic boulders are evident as well.

Indian Island has an interesting past, important presence and a necessary future and we were most fortunate to have been able to visit this very secure facility. And thanks, of course, to Byron Faber for the tour arrangements. – Norman Marten

Michael SharpOur September 8 Luncheon speaker will be Radm Michael Sharp, Chairman USS Washington (SSN-787) Commissioning Committee. The USS Washington. The State of Washington has been honored by the naming of the Navy’s newest submarine after the State. USS Washington started construction in 2011 at Newport News Shipyard, VA, and is expected to be commissioned in late 2016. She is the fourtenth of the Virginia class submarines and the third ship named for the state.

Rear Admiral Sharp was the Commanding Officer, USS San Francisco (SSN 711).  Rear Admiral Sharp served as the Program Executive Officer, Mine and Undersea Warfare, Vice Commander, Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command and as the Chief Engineer for the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research, Development and Acquisition. Rear Admiral Sharp was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal upon retirement after 30 years.

Our social hour will begin at 11 am; opening will be at 11:45 followed by lunch. Location is the Bangor Conference Center, Trident Ballroom, NBK, Bangor.


Please call Evergreen Transfer & Storage at 360 674-2762 for your lunch registration.

  • Please call at your earliest convenience.
  • Cut off for reservations is Sept 2
  • Members without base access; processing time takes weeks.
  • Please give your name as it appears on your driver’s license.
  • Spell your name to make certain that it will be correct on the gate access sheet.
  • Provide your date of birth and city of birth.


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